Born in 1943 in Tehran, Iran, he has been known as the only member of Saqqa-khaneh school alive. He is in search of novel ways for expressing not very novel ideas. To do so, he uses various methods and mediums: stamping techniques, cliché, engraving, calligraphy. Still, he takes advantage of many other techniques such as patterns and motifs on fabrics, utilizing geometrical forms, ritual language, prayers, and spells. He has invented his new style in sculpture and painting with the special techniques he uses in his artwork, which is also well-known in Europe and the US. In his works, he chiefly uses the special hand-made modeling clay he has made from old magazines. This modeling clay has become famous in Europe in the name of “ Zende”. One of the features of his works is using calligraphy in his paintings. Letters take form in his mind. He has been a journalist for many years, which has affected his art profoundly.